4c. more links to studies on ketogenic diets


GREAT new link – especially be sure to read the review of 5 previous studies.

Ketocal was developed a number of years ago.


Cancer Metab. 2015; 3: 3.

Published online 2015 Mar 25. doi:  10.1186/s40170-015-0129-1

PMCID: PMC4371612

Treatment of glioma patients with ketogenic diet

Five patients with advanced brain tumors and favorable responses to ERKD (Energy Restricted Ketogenic diet)  have been reported (patients no. 3 to 7) (Table 1). The best response was a 3-year-old girl who remained in complete remission 5 years after treatment with a ERKD [16]. In four of the five patients, ERKD was combined with one of the standard modalities of treatment, either radiation or chemotherapy. The most recent report showed that three of the five patients were in complete remission and two of the five had documented disease progression after stopping the ERKD.

The inclusion of the detailed descriptions from these five previously reported cases and the two cases described herein enables a summary discussion of seven individually described patients (four males and three females) with advanced primary brain cancers treated with a ketogenic diet. The salient features of these patients are summarized in Tables 1, ,2,2, ,3,3, and and4.4. Four of the treated patients were adults, mean age 53 and three were children, mean age 5.5 years. The pathological diagnoses in four patients were GBM, with spinal cord anaplastic astrocytoma and cerebellar astrocytoma grade III, and juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma the diagnoses in the other three patients. The tumors were located in different loci throughout the brain or spinal cord. Before treatment with ERKD, all seven patients were treated with at least two or three different treatment modalities including surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy (Table 1).




Index of additional links to research

  1. 3506713 fatty acids help healthy cells, not cancer cells
  2. 4235292 – ketone supplements prolongs life of mice with cancer
  3. 26083629 – Ketogenic diet may be tool for gliomas
  4. 4470583- full article of above abstract
  5. 26061868 and 4464523-combine ketogenic diet, ketone supplements and hyperbarric oxygen
  6. 25806103 (abstract) PMC4371612 (full article)- review of 30 patients
  7. 4367849 – GKI – Glucose ketone index could be correlated with success in how effective ketogenic diet was against cancer.
  8. 3157418 – 16 “advanced” cancer patients (different types of cancer) were put on ketogenic diet for 12 weeks.  This was last chance for them, they had no other options.  The patients who could remain on ketogenic diet 12 weeks remained stable – others died or had cancer progression while monitored.
  9. 3367873- Multiple Myeloma cells have more glucose transporters than normal cells.




  1. Dietary fatty acids increase cell viability of benign prostate RWPE-1 cells but not that of prostate cancer cell lines
  2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4235292/ full article
    Ketone supplementation decreases tumor cell viability and prolongs survival of mice with metastatic cancer
  3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26083629
    he KD directly or indirectly alters the expression of several proteins involved in malignant progression and may be a useful tool for the treatment of gliomas
  4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4470583/ (full article)
  5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26061868
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4464523/ (full article)
    We previously showed that two non-toxic metabolic therapies – the ketogenic diet with concurrent hyperbaric oxygen (KD+HBOT) and dietary ketone supplementation – could increase survival time in the VM-M3 mouse model of metastatic cancer.
  6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25806103
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4371612/ (full article) 2015 Treatment of Glioma patients with ketogenic diet – 2 cases & reviews of 30 other cancer patients. All were trying to keep glucose under 80 and ketones over 2. Some had long term disease free survival and others did not. They wondered if some malignant cells could use ketones or if some characteristics of the tumor made ketogenic diets work or not. I noticed that 2 of the patients were taking decadron – which raises blood glucose
  7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4367849The above article has the formula to calculate a Glucose Ketone Index which is a ratio of blood glucose to ketones. The article is about how the Glucose Ketone Index (GKI) was used to analyze results from 5 previously published reports on how effective the ketogenic diet is in suppressing cancer.1. The first study involved 2 children with brain cancer. During 8 weeks on ketogenic diet, their GKI dropped from 27.5 to .7 in one patient and 1.1 in the other patient. The children maintained that for the entire 8 weeks and had no chemotherapy. Both patients went into remission – and remained in remission up until the time of publication – which was 4 years for one and 5 years for the other even after they returned to a standard diet!
    2. The second study involved a 65 year old woman with brain cancer. Her GKI went from 37.5 to 1.4 (it took 3 weeks to get there). She maintained that for 8 weeks and had no discernable brain tumor tissue at the end of 8 weeks. But she went off the diet and 10 weeks after she went off the diet her tumor came back.
    3. 3rd study was on mice- if mice had GKI of 15.2 there was rapid growth of tumor. If GKI was 3.7 the tumor decreased in size
    4. 4th study was on mice. Mice with GKI of 9.6-70 there was rapid growth of tumor. Mice with GKI of 1.8-4.4 had reduction in size of growth.
    5. 5th – mice with GKI of 32.3 survived 41 days. Mice with GKI of 5.7 plus they received radiation survived more than 200 days.Summary:” GKI can predict success for brain cancer management in humans & mice.” Tumor cells are dependent on glucose to survive – they cannot use ketones. Normal cells can use ketones for fuel.It seems at this time that a GKI of 1 is optimal. Blood and ketones should be measured 2-3 hours after last meal, and number should be taken twice a day.
  8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3157418/Effects of Ketogenic diet for 12 weeks on 16 patients w advanced cancer. All had completed several therapies and no therapeutic options were left. 5 completed – all 5 were stable.
  9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3367873/
    MM exhibits novel dependence on GLUT4, GLUT8, and GLUT11 – implications for glucose transporter directed therapy.
    inhibition of glucose metabolism may be an ideal strategy to treat Multiple Myeloma.
    • What happens during glucose deprivation?
    • Normal cells were fine, but the MM cells died!