Index of Studies on Pubmed.gov & Science Daily below youtube links. follow links below index
- (21479220)KD mimics fasting- 21.8% decrease in tumor size
- (24503133) animal test of ketogenic diet – improve survival
- Science daily – How high glucose stimulates cancer
- 21179032 study how high glucose and insulin of diabetics predisposes them to cancer
- 14520474 mice with brain tumors & ketogenic diet
- 4165433 – Amazing study– ketones actually cause the cancer cells to have less glucose and glutamine uptake. In presence of ketones, cancer cells were not able to break down healthy muscle tissue!
- biomedcentral – low insulin, low glucose, high ketones inhibits cancer cell proliferation.
- 3826507 – many uses for ketogenic diets. Tumor cells have glycolytic rates up to 200x higher than normal tissue.
- 21673053 Low carbohydrate, high fat resulted in slower cancer progression in mice. Celebrex (anti-inflamatory) further improved results.
- 2408928 – 24 mice ones on ketogenic lived longer
- 7790697 – 2 children on ketogenic diet
- 22840388 – ketosis not weight loss that accounts for stable disease
- 7759747 pediatric cancer patients and MCT oil
- 3988521- ketogenic helps radiation treatment
- 2673798- Protein restriction causes reduction in IGF-1.
- 4540467 (Aug 2015) measuring uptake of glucose & production of lactate
Studies and Research on Pubmed.gov
- .http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21479220 “diet could be effective in reducing malignant brain tumor growth in part by inhibiting inflammation in the primary brain tumor” A ketogenic diet mimics many of the benefits of fasting, without the hunger. In 1995 Dr. Nebeling used a ketogenic diet on 2 young girls with advanced stage malignant Astrocytoma tumors. Ketosis was maintained by consuming a 60% medium chain triglyceride oil-based diet. 20% protein & 10% carbohydrates, 10% other fats. Within 7 days of initiating the ketogenic diet, blood glucose levels declined to low-normal levels and blood ketones were elevated twenty to thirty fold. Results of PET scans indicated a 21.8% decrease in glucose uptake at the tumor site in both subjects.
2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24503133 The ketogenic diet (high fat, low carbohydrate and protein), caloric restriction, and fasting all cause a metabolic change; specifically, a reduction in blood glucose and an increase in blood ketones. – demonstrated that these metabolic changes improve survival in animal models of malignant gliomas
3. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/02/130201100149.htm Colin Goding, Professor of Oncology at the University of Oxford, UK said ‘Previously we were unsure about how increased blood sugar found in diabetes and obesity could increase cancer risk. This study identifies a key molecular mechanism through which high blood glucose would predispose to cancer.
4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21179032?dopt=Abstract During the last decade, epidemiological studies uncovered the tremendous impact of metabolic syndrome/diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM T2) as risk factors of the progression of cancer. Therefore, we studied the impact of diabetogenic glucose and insulin concentrations on the activities of tumour cells,
RESULTS; Proliferation assays revealed that high levels of glucose (11 mM) and insulin (100 ng ml(-1)) did promote the proliferation of the tumour cell lines
Brain tumors are dependent largely on glucose for energy. This contrasts with normal brain tissue that can derive energy from both glucose and ketone bodies… mice were fed either a standard diet .. a ketogenic diet…. Our results in a mouse astrocytoma suggest that malignant brain tumours are potentially manageable with dietary therapies that reduce glucose and elevate ketone bodies.
Tumor cells secrete cytokines/factors which induce muscle and fat degradation in cancer patients – “cancer cachexia”. 20% of all cancer deaths result from this.
Ketogenic diet diminished tumor growth and cachexia.
Ketone bodies inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in pancreatic cell lines
Ketone bodies diminish health of cancer cells by reducing glucose and glutamine uptake.
Also cancer cells exposed to ketone bodies had fewer GLUT1
This study is COOL! The thing that struck me from the article was that ketones actually cause the cancer cells to have less glucose and glutamine uptake! I knew we were trying to keep glucose levels down and trying not to eat too much meat (glutamine) but ketones actually prevent cancer cells from being able to use them? Wow. Maybe this is related, but the fact that in the presence of ketones, the cancer cells were not able to break down healthy muscle tissue also amazed me.
When I was reading Cancer As a Metabolic Disease, the scary part was that you could cut back on glucose, but if the cancer metastasized it would just digest healthy tissue to support itself. So, cutting back on glucose might not even work – but this article is the first time I have ever seen that the ketones seem to interfere with the ability of the cancer cells to basically eat healthy tissue.
- Most malignant cells depend on steady glucose availability in the blood and are not able to metabolize significant amounts of fatty acids or ketone bodies.
- High insulin can directly promote tumor cell proliferation.
- Ketone bodies that are elevated when insulin and blood glucose levels are low, have been found to negatively affect proliferation of different malignant cells in vitro
Above is a review of many uses for ketogenic diets. From section on cancer – most cancer cells have insulin receptors. High insulin, high glucose and chronic inflammation may increase growth rate of cancer cells. Rapidly growning tumor cells have glycolytic rates up to 200x higher than normal tissue.
Above is about cancer experiments in mice. Low carbohydrate, high fat resulted in slower cancer progression in mice. Celebrex (anti-inflamatory) further improved results.
Another mouse study – 24 mice injected with human gastric cancer cells. All the mice with regular diet had their tumors reach size of 600-700mm(3) by 28 days – the average amount of time for the tumor in mice with regular diet to read that size was 23 days. The ones on ketogenic diet with no calorie restriction, but with added Omega 3 and MCT (Medium Chain Trigycerides – as in coconut oil) averaged 34.2 days before their tumor reached that size and the last mouse in KD group to reach that point was 45 days.
2 children with advanced stage malignant Astrocytoma tumors – one child on ketogenic diet remained free of disease progression as long as the study followed her.
The extent of ketosis, but not calorie deficit or weight loss, correlated with stable disease or partial remission
Dietary manipulation through carbohydrate restriction, calorie restriction & ketogenic diet may enhance the efficacy of radiation therapy.
New links: lower protein and also have more protein from plant sources.
15. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2673798/ Protein restriction causes reduction in IGF-1.
Dietary protein restriction inhibits tumor growth
Our results showed a 70% inhibition of tumor growth in the castrate-resistant LuCaP23.1 prostate cancer model and a 56% inhibition in the WHIM16 breast cancer model fed with a 7% protein diet when compared to an isocaloric 21% protein diet
A diet containing 20% plant protein inhibited tumor weight by 37% as compared to a 20% animal dairy protein diet.
studies suggest that dietary protein or essential amino acid restriction is more powerful than calorie or fat restriction in lowering the circulating levels of IGF-1 (Insulin like Growth Factor)
16. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4540467/ Aug 18 2015
Although it is widely accepted that altered glucose metabolism is associated with cancer development, the metabolic phenotype of cancer cells and in particular its regulation remain poorly understood. Therefore, we first investigated the glycolytic activity of BE and malignant prostate epithelial cell lines by measuring their gluco